Deprivation refers to a situation where an individual is denied of the basic necessities of life. 

In social terms, it is one of the consequences of the disparity in the socio- economic norms prevalent in the environment, due to the caste system followed in the Indian society.

There is a lot of ethnic diversity in India leading to formation of minority and majority groups, not just in terms of the population but also in terms of the resources available to each of these groups. 

As the society is governed by its citizens, the majority social groups have monopolized the scarce goods of prestige and power. Therefore, deprivation plays a very important role in any society.

An individual experiences deprivation when a particular need remains unsatisfied.

Effects of Deprivation:

Functional tension: It affects motivation, it is the positive desire to fulfill a particular need and exert effort in doing the same. If this need is satisfied, then the tension will be reduced and will lead to a temporary calming effect. Therefore, functional tension and desire for relief are directly proportional. Higher the tension, higher will be the need to satisfy the same and be relieved.

Dysfunctional tension: It may also be termed as apathy. It occurs when the effort is not expected to or does not relieve the dissatisfaction caused.


 An employee believes that the target put forward is impossible to achieve, therefore no matter how much effort he/ she puts in, he/ she will not be able to achieve the target and reduce her dissatisfaction.


Dysfunctional tension is a complex type of Deprivation for the managers also as they are unable to understand the reasons due to which an employee underperforms, even when he/ she has the considerable potential.

 The manager needs to put in additional efforts to know the reason for the same and then try to reduce these causes as they will hamper the productivity of the employee in future.

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