Month: December 2016

#HR #Word: #Construct #Validity

​Çonstruct validity essentially tries to indicate whether we are actually measuring what we aim to measure. Construct validity is “the degree to which a test measures what it claims, or purports, to be measuring.”

For example does an IQ test really determine intelligence or some other skill? It is used in the selection process as it is important to know whether the measures used during the process truly reflect job performance. 

The term construct indicates psychological traits tested in the selection process such as leadership, mechanical ability, intelligence and so on. These traits are listed under the job specifications section of the job design.

Construct validity is determined by a strong statistical correlation between the job measure and the selection procedure.


As per psychologist Messick’s Unified Theory of Construct Validity, we have to examine six aspects that measure the quality of a test’s construct validity:







Hope you all had a Great 2016. Wishing you all great Success in 2017.

You can View all HR Words from Below Link.


Manish Pipalwa.

#HR Word :#Constraints On The #Recruiting #Efforts

Çonstraints on the recruiting efforts are the hindrances faced during the recruitment process. 

In real world practice it is actually difficult to find and select a suitable candidate fit for the job. The recruiting organization’s mode of communication may not be an appropriate one.

Some of the brilliant applicants may feel that the vacancy is not in line with their current expectation or their talent. An organization may not be able to select the candidates freely even though they offer much better salaries and amenities.

Following are few constraints faced by the organization during the recruitment:-

1. Reputation of the organization- The reputation of the organization influences the recruitment process to a great extent. A candidate may not apply to the enterprise if it doesn’t carry a good image in the society. The probability of attracting large pool of applicant is reduced in such a case. This usually happen due to poor working conditions, delay in salary, rude management, etc.

2. Unattractive Jobs- If the job is hazardous, tension ridden, boring, unattractive, lacks opportunities, very few of the candidates would be applying for it. At the same time if there is opportunity of growth, flexible working hours, good working conditions, high salary, there would be large number of applicants for such kind of jobs.

3. Trade union- In some of the cases, agreement with the trade unions may be the constraint to recruit employee from outside. An agreement with the union to fill certain percentage of posts will restrict the choice of the management.

4. Organizational Policies- The internal policy framework of the organization also acts as a constraint sometimes for recruiting any applicant. A policy of recruiting higher positions from outside might discourage a deserving candidate to apply in such an organization.

5. Government Policies- Sometimes the government policies also act as a constraint on recruitment policy of the enterprise. Government policy may require certain percentage of seats to be reserved for the weaker section of the society. Government policy may also require selecting a candidate from the list provided by the government employment exchange. Such kind policies restrict the management from recruiting by their choice.

#HR #Word : Conditions of #Employment

Çondition of Employment are the set of conditions that highlight the important aspects of the employment contract. They are also known as the operational requirement. These are a set of contract that need to be maintained throughout the employment of the employee.

Clauses like the number of working days, working hours per day and per week, overtime work rates, meal times and break durations, night shifts, holiday system, public holidays, sick leaves, parameters pertaining to payment details, termination etc are mentioned. 

These conditions are set for the welfare of the employee. However certain conditions are also set for the employer to choose a suitable employee.


Often condition like willingness to relocate are also used by employers to screen candidates. A person not meeting the condition of employment cannot be employed with the hope that they will soon be meeting the criteria but can be placed in the pool of qualified candidates. A minimum of 45 working hours per week can be a condition of employment set by the employer.

#HR #Word: #Conciliation

​Çonciliation is the part of the dispute resolution technique between management and union, which helps to resolve the issue between two parties on a point of disagreement

Conciliation is often considered as last chance before parties get engage in adjudication i.e. labour court hearing. As conciliation is engaged often after the voluntary arbitration fails. At the conciliation state parties can mutually agreeable benefit.


Mediation for the purpose of conciliation is done by conciliation officer. Concilation officer act as a facilitator. He also parties to come to the negotiation table. Conciliation officer tries to reach amicable solution. If at all the settlement is reached between the parties it is signed by the management, union and conciliation officer.

Settlement is binding on the parties to the dispute as well as the all concerned workman present as well as future).It is also binding on employer and his assigns and heirs. This article makes settlement reached in conciliation proceeding applicable to the future owners of the organization in case of merger and acquisition.

The conciliation proceeding give that last opportunity to the parties to the dispute to resolve dispute in a mutually agreeable and convenient way. This also is the mechanism to resolve our own conflict without losing the control of the proceedings to outside person. Once the conciliation fails the matters also take time to resolve as lot procedural thing come into the picture of judicial nature.

#HR Word : #Concession #Bargaining

​Īñ Concession bargaining unions give back to the management something it has gained from the management previously like pay rises, work practices, good working conditions and similar other things in return for job security. 

This kind of bargaining takes place mainly when there is a recession condition in the market.

This is a form of collective bargaining and the term is used frequently in labor laws and it is opposite to all other forms of union –management bargaining where unions demand something from the management.

It was coined in the 1980’s.This bargaining is used by labor unions to save jobs during times of recession when there are layoffs by the company. The amount of trust that the union has on the management and the credibility of the management to the union affects the extent to which concessions take place in concession bargaining.

One example of concession bargaining was the concessions on wage and benefits made by the International Union of Electric Workers to General Motors to save 3000 jobs.

There are three types of concession bargaining-integrative, distributive and ultra concession bargaining.

In integrative concession when unions give back some kind of concession to the employer, the employer along with job security also engages in other forms of reciprocating exchange like allowing the unions to participate in decision making, sharing information, engaging employees, profit sharing etc.

In distributive concession bargaining employers make use of hard times in business to allow trade unions to make concessions in their working conditions and pay in return for job security. No concession is granted in participation in decision making or recognition of trade unions.

In ultra concession unions have no power at all. In this form of concession bargaining employers gain a lot of concession from unions and in return they give very few or no benefits to the unions. Also employers turn hostile to unions and try to suppress the unions

#HR Word : Compulsory #Unionism

Compulsory unionism is a phenomenon which mandates the employees to be a part of the existing union

Unions provide many services to the people. Collective bargaining and negotiations between employer and employee happens through unions.

Unions also Elect its leaders who heads the union. And for all its activities and its services, unions incur certain costs, which are collected from its members regularly. 

Union accounts and expenses are maintained clearly. 

The benefits obtained from the collective bargaining and negotiations with the employer, are also applicable to non-union members. That is, non-union members who are not paying the membership fee and union dues, are also benefited from the unions. As a solution to this issue, the concept of compulsory unionism was introduced, which mandates every employee to be a part of the union and pay the union dues.

Compulsory unionism also raises certain problems. As many unions have their mechanisms in proper place, this makes the union fees high. The people who could not afford such high fees will face problems. Certain benefits from the union will not be useful or applicable to all its members, but even then people will be forced to pay the fees for the benefits which are not wanted or needed by them. 

Compulsory unionism also clashes with the fundamental human right i.e. right to freedom of association. Many people who are disinterested with the activities of the union, will not be willing to pay for the unions. Hence many people are against it.

#HR #Word #Compulsory #Redundancy

Compulsory redundancy is where companies can sack the employees based on criteria like low performance, unpunctuality, disciplinary action etc. 

The selection criteria for compulsory redundancy should be fair to all employees and employees should not be selected because they are union leaders, pregnant, disabled etc.

Redundancy means no longer in service as being retrenched by the company. 

There are two types of redundancyVoluntary redundancy and compulsory redundancy.

Voluntary redundancy means when employees leave the company voluntarily and higher compensations are offered to them as an incentive for leaving. Often the companies keep on launching various schemes to increase productivity. For example, voluntary separation after a specific age for employees with high compensation so that they can recruit new and young workforce.

However, as per statutory laws in India, the concept of redundancy cannot be applied if the retrenchment is not done on fair reasons

That is, if there is any kind of partiality in retrenchment. Companies have to justify the retrenchment with proper reason to government authority who is examining the redundancy

If redundancy is not as per the labor practices or no proper reason is provided, government authority can reject the permission for retrenchment.

The compensation for compulsory redundancy include the salary of three months but it can differ on the basis of reason of redundancy. The bona fide and joining document signed by employees when they join the company has clauses determining the grounds on which company can go for compulsory redundancy. The compensation in these cases is also mentioned most of the times.

As seen in the past, the reason for compulsory redundancies are generally performance of employees or economic condition of company when it becomes incapable to pay its employees. Then companies select low performers and often go for compulsory redundancy.