Month: December 2017


Ageism (also spelled “agism“) is stereotyping of and discrimination against individuals or groups on the basis of their age. 

This may be casual or systematic. The term was coined in 1969 by Robert Neil Butler to describe discrimination against seniors, and patterned on sexism and racism. 

Butler defined “ageism” as a combination of three connected elements. Among them were prejudicial attitudes towards older people, old age, and the aging process

Age discrimination in employment can include:

  • advertising for someone to join a ‘dynamic, young team’

  • not interviewing someone because they are too young or too old to ‘fit in’ with other staff

  • not employing younger workers because it’s assumed that they’ll quickly move on to another job

  • not employing mature workers because it’s assumed that they’ll soon retire

  • not providing training opportunities for young or mature workers because ‘it’s not worth it’

  • making choices around redundancy, or forcing someone to retire, because of their age

Employer Duty to avoid Ageism

An employer has a duty to take reasonable measures to prevent discrimination from happening, rather than just respond to complaints that arise. This is called a ‘positive duty’. It means that an employer needs to take proactive steps to eliminate discrimination.  For example this could mean scanning their environment and considering if recruitment and employment policies and processes unreasonably bar people of certain age groups from being employed or continuing to work. An employer should put in place changes required to address this.

Source Forbes & Wiki

#HRWord:#Pay Dispersion

Pay dispersion is a concept where employers pay different amount of wages or salaries to their employees for the same skills and the same type of work

Image credit: prosperio

Pay dispersion exists because of limited knowledge of employees about the wages of the other employees, and also because of employee experience, changing policies etc.

Pay dispersion takes into account several factors for determining the operationalization. They are like benchmarked pay levels, coefficient of variation, Gini Coefficient, etc.


1. Higher pay brings out better productivity, & the employees also puts in more effort

2. Differential inputs & marginal products, represents internal career & wage path that raise motivational levels & has effect upon the attitudes.

3. Greater pay dispersion generally is positively correlated with turnover, as and when the vertical pay dispersion is examined.

4. Organizations focusing on expectation enhancing are rather more successful than those focusing on pay dispersion.

#HR #Word:#OMD (#Outdoor #Management #Development)

Outdoor Management Development is a process of imparting learning and development for managerial cadre outside the four walls of an organizational setup

Image courtesy: Hula Hoppo

The objective of outdoor management development is to build a team, give leadership lessons etc. 

It includes residential programs conducted for building team cohesion, leadership development etc.

Purpose of Outdoor Management Development:

1. Team Building:

Many times managers at senior level meet only at important corporate events. Otherwise they are into their own functional activities. But there should be mutual understanding of others function in order to take decision as one company. In order to create common understanding at organizational level and create strong corporate team outdoor management development activities are conducted.

2. Leadership Developments:

As organization tries to build team of leadership, people coming from different functions who are top performers, comprises leadership team. When people come from different function, they may not be prepared enough to take role of leader at organizational level. In order to develop organizational understanding outdoor residential programs are conducted.

Issues in Outdoor Management Development:

1. Relevance of Such Program:

Many researchers consider the poor relevance of outdoor management programs to organizational challenges. Once these programs completed for week or so, people come back to same environment. It is at times not possible to bring change in actual work environments. Hence these programs could not be effective as they are supposed to be.

2. Ability to simulate challenges:

When adventure activities are planned for senior executives, they may not be able to perform. This does not mean they will not able to perform in their professional acts. They may be the rarest resource in their area of expertise.

3. Organizational climate:

Though people learn a lot at outdoor management development centres, its applicability depends on organizational climate. If organizational climate is not allowing change then impact of such developmental program does not last long enough. In order to practice learnings from outdoor management developments, organizational climate must be open, adaptable to change.

Outdoor management development can be effective if it practiced with due consideration of organizational climate i.e. to what extent practices can be improved.

#HR #Word:#Pygmalion Effect

The Pygmalion effect, or Rosenthal effect, is the phenomenon whereby higher expectations lead to an increase in performance

Image courtesy: WFED

The effect is named after the Greek myth of Pygmalion, a sculptor who fell in love with a statue he had carved.

A corollary of the Pygmalion effect is the golem effect, in which low expectations lead to a decrease in performance;  

Both effects are forms of self-fulfilling prophecy.

By the Pygmalion effect, people internalize their positive labels, and those with positive labels succeed accordingly. The idea behind the Pygmalion effect is that increasing the leader’s expectation of the follower’s performance will result in better follower performance. Within sociology, the effect is often cited with regard to education and social class.

Studies of the Pygmalion effect have been difficult to conduct. Results show a positive correlation between leader expectation and follower performance, but it is argued that the studies are done in an unnatural, manipulated setting. Scientists argue that the perceptions a leader has of a follower cause the Pygmalion effect. The leader’s expectations are influenced by their perception of the situation or the followers themselves. 

Perception and expectation may possibly be found in a similar part in the brain.

#HR #Word:#OCB (#Organizational #Citizenship #Behaviour)

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as the context or performance in which any job or task takes place. 

It is basically being a person who is ready to serve the organization in matters that is outside the scope of his/her job domain. 

It includes being helpful, caring towards other employees in the organization.

Example, Helping out a newcomer in an organization with his work, working overtime sometimes in order to get convert clients, etc


1. People who engage in OCB often tend to receive better ratings, further it boosts the morale of others in organization.

2. People engaging in OCB, often faces lower risk of destaffing, as they are considered to be more valuable owing to their helpful nature.

3. OCB can further enhance productivity within a team, a group or by an employee in general, as people are there to support & help each other

4. Creation of better communication links & developing new networks, further boosting employee morale.

Ways to encourage OCB: From Workplace perspective

1. Maintaining the social environment in the workplace: Employees interact, connect & they develop bonding

2. Supervisory role: Training people about the implications of OCB will help them in this practice.

3. Hiring the right candidates.

#HR #Word:#Paid #Time #Off

Paid time off (PTO) is a number of hours that employees can use to pool sick days, personal leave or vacation while being paid as a working day. 

Image courtesy: Talent Development 360

Different companies offer different hours as paid leave depending on their policies, compensation plans and retention strategy. 

There is no government policy that regulates the number of hours companies must offer as paid time off.

Absences are also calculated under the Paid time off hours provided to the employee. 

Some companies allow employees to carry forward unused Paid time off hours into the next financial year whereas others dissolve the unused hours at the end of the year. However PTO does not cover sabbaticals or long term medical leave.

Most organizations provide around 2 weeks of Paid time off hours per year however some companies like Netflix and Virgin have no PTO limit. 

Employees of Virgin UK and US are allowed to take as many PTO hours off as they wish as long as the work is completed on time.

An advantage of using this plan is that employees would schedule their PTO in advance and hence the organization can plan around the absence of the individual. Another advantage is that employees feel that the organization cares about their work life balance and hence help retain the employees in the long term.

A disadvantage however is that employees are being paid even though they are not being productive. Furthermore many employees may want to cash in on their unused PTO hours near the end of the year hence resulting in lower productivity.