Day: February 12, 2017

#HR Word: #Distance #Learning

Distance Learning is the method of studying where student personally need not to attend any school or college instead he/she can learn from broadcast lectures or by correspondence classes over conference.

It is a field of education where focus is on technology and instructional system design that delivers education to students who can’t attend classes physically (Off-site location). Teleconference, Web based classes etc. are the methods adopted in distance education.

Distinguishing in broad manner, following methods are used for Distance Learning:

1. Audio based learning

    This type of method includes one way and two way communication.

    Examples: Radio broadcasting, Recorded CDs, Teleconference


    2. Video based learning

      This type of learning is further subdivided into two types:

      Prerecorded Video      – Recorded videos are used

      Interactive Video        – An interactive session is organized using satellite, camera and TV


      3. Internet based learning

        This method needs internet facility where education is imparted online by websites and bulletin boards. It is very cost effective and hence is gaining popularity.

        Examples: Online MBA coaching, Online Certification training etc.


        University of London was the first university to offer distance learning for its International programmes which includes UG, PG and Diploma. Presently number of universities and colleges offer distance education courses which gained popularity because of computer revolution.

        #HR #Word: #Disparate #Treatment

        Disparate treatment is defined as treating a person differently than others. 


        This discriminatory treatment is owing to one of many factors, called protected factors. 

        Such treatment is intentional, and this theory is defined under theories of discrimination in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of United States.

        An example of disparate treatment is an employer allowing all the employees of his department to enjoy a particular perk but refraining a single individual from utilising the same benefit.

        As per Title VII, employers are prohibited from treating there employees or job applicants differently owing to the fact that they belong to a protected class.

         These impermissible criterion as defined under the Act are listed below:( US )

        • If the individual under consideration is of 40 years of more.

        • Any discriminatory behaviour with respect to a person’s caste, creed or colour.

        • People belonging to a different nation, or carrying characteristics of a particular region (race), cannot be discriminated against.

        Religion: all aspects of religious beliefs, rituals and observations have to be held sincerely.

        Gender: No sexual orientation or gender is granted protected class under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, 1964.

        Disparate treatment should not be confused with ‘disparate impact’ or ‘adverse impact’ as these terms are not the same.

        It is often a result of employer’s past experiences or biases towards a particular group. However, such treatment could also be an outcome of the employer trying to protect a group’s interests. The term ‘adverse impact’ is used for discriminatory behaviour that could be unintentional, and it relates to a particular protected group, rather than one individual.

        Disparate treatment becomes an issue if the employer’s actions are proven to carry discriminatory intent. The proof could be either direct or indirect evidence. The plaintiff can establish a ‘prima facie case’ if there is direct evidence that the employer displayed discriminatory behaviour either orally or in written form. The McDonnellDouglas test was established in the courts to assess if discriminatory intent is present if obvious evidence is otherwise not found